# Sign Convention Rules

The voltage polarity tells us that the top of the resistance $2,text V$ is above the bottom of the resistance. Ohm`s law tells us that the current is $+8 ,text{mA}$. The $+$ sign on the stream means that the current flows in the direction of the arrow from top to bottom. (Conventional current, not electronic current.) The images above show the tension with two notations: with $+$ and $-$ characters and also with an orange voltage arrow. The voltage arrow indicates from $-$ to $+$. The polarity signs and the arrow are redundant, they mean exactly the same thing. You can use one or both in your schemas. The voltage polarity for this resistance $250,Omega$ has been assigned with $+$ above. This direction of polarity was an arbitrary choice. Something (not shown) in the surrounding circuit causes $2,text V$ to appear on the resistor. Power is never really negative. The minus sign results from the use of the sign convention for passive components.

When talking to someone about power, it`s clearer to use the words dissipate and generate instead of the numeric characters $+$ and $-$. The drawing conventions used in the study of the positions of the object and the image differ from one book to another. However, Cartesian drawing conventions are the most commonly used. The pole is taken as a reference point. The rules for drawing conventions are: The drawing convention has an influence on how we think about power. Electricity can be produced or dissipated. If we use the sign convention, power dissipation ends with a positive sign and energy production ends with a negative sign. Let`s find the power dissipated by the resistance $250, Omega$, The second example of power is the one where I apply the sign convention for passive components to an “active” (and not passive) circuit element, the voltage source. We abuse the passive drawing convention a bit when we do that, but let`s see what happens. The current arrow points to the + connector of the voltage source. The current arrow defines the direction in which we consider it a positive current. This does not mean that the current actually flows in this way, but if it did, its value would have a + sign.

In fact, we know that the current flows in the other direction, from the connector of the battery + and into the top of the resistor. Thus, if the current arrow points into the battery, the current value is a negative value, i = -8mA. When you perform a power calculation at the voltage source, multiply a positive voltage by a negative current and get a negative power for an object that generates current. This is the result of using the passive drawing convention. The negative sign is a side effect of using the sign convention for passive components on current generating elements such as the voltage source. When you label the voltage and current of a circuit element, the convention says that you must point the current arrow in the terminal with the positive voltage polarity. With this drawing convention, we apply Ohm`s law $(v = i,text R)$ directly to resistors. The voltage source is an energy generator. Electricity production has a negative sign. The sign convention for passive devices is a widely understood way of attributing polarity to voltages and currents. It defines what we mean by positive and negative voltage and current.

The voltage is output with a minus sign, which means that the terminal with the voltage polarity $+$ $0.2 ,Text V$ is below the terminal with the sign $-$. We used the drawing convention and let mathematics create the right sign, even with the negative current. The whimsical name for this idea is the design convention for passive components. If you ever see the drawing convention violated, it should grab your attention and remind you to include a minus sign in Ohm`s law. Now, start again with the current arrow pointing to the $-$ sign. This tells us that the current is $+8,text{mA}$. The $+$ sign means that it flows in the direction of the arrow. What? That`s not possible. In a real resistance, the current flows in the other direction. We got the wrong answer. Oh wait! To get the right answer, we need to remember to include a $-$ sign in Ohm`s law. This definition of potential seems to me to explain this convention of passive element by physics, doesn`t it? Positive charges range from higher potential to lower potential.

This resistance $10,text kOmega$ has been labeled with the sign convention for passive devices, just like Example 1: The voltage polarity has $+$ at the top and the blue current arrow points to the positive sign. This time, instead of voltage, the current is indicated. The current value is $-20 ,mutext A$. This may seem a little strange to show $-20mutext A$ running towards the arrow, but let`s see what happens. Lesson: You make fewer mistakes when you use the signing convention for passive components. We use Ohm`s law to release the unknown tension. As we have taken care to use the sign convention, just insert the actual values displayed in the diagram. If you use the sign convention for passive elements $(text R, text L, text C)$, power $P = i , v$ has a positive sign. Positive performance is associated with power dissipation.

The Passive Signature Agreement is more of an accounting rule. If we only want to have a version of Ohm`s law without a minus sign, we need a rule that voltage and current polarities must be arranged correctly. It would be a burden to have two versions of Ohm`s law so that we can polarize everyone in one way or another. Sometimes you used v=iR and sometimes v=-iR, and there were tons of errors. What happens if we apply the convention of the passive sign to the source of tension? The labeling convention helps you get the right answer when analyzing a circuit. Veterans: Some military electronic training programs (for example, the U.S. Navy`s NEETS program of the 1960s) use the opposite sign convention and define that current flows toward the movement of electrons. We don`t use this convention here at Spinning Numbers. .

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