Afghanistan Peace Agreement 2020
Much of the peace negotiations took place during a year of record power on both sides. In the last quarter of 2019 alone, the Taliban carried out 8,204 attacks, the highest figure for that period in the last ten years. The U.S. dropped 7,423 bombs and missiles during the year, a record since the Air Force began recording data in 2006. “I know there will be a temptation to declare victory,” he said. “But the victory of the Afghans can only be achieved if they can live and prosper in peace.” The United States and the Taliban signed the peace agreement on February 29 in Doha, Qatar. The hope is that some kind of lasting peace can be achieved. The fear is that the hardest work lies ahead and that the Taliban will be encouraged by the US withdrawal to challenge a bitterly divided government in Kabul. “I truly believe the Taliban want to do something to show that we are not wasting all our time,” President Trump said in Washington hours after the deal was signed. “When bad things happen, we go back.” “The Doha agreement was a very weak agreement, and the United States should have received more concessions from the Taliban,” said Lisa Curtis, an Afghanistan expert who served as the National Security Council`s executive director for South and Central Asia under the Trump administration. U.S. officials made it clear at the time that the agreement was based on conditions and that the failure of intra-Afghan peace talks to reach a negotiated solution would have lifted the obligation to withdraw.
Why it matters: The deal was reviewed to lay the groundwork for the U.S. military`s withdrawal from Afghanistan, which coincided with a large-scale Taliban offensive that ended Sunday with the fall of Kabul. A day before the Doha agreement, he was one of the american leader`s top advisers. Negotiator Zalmay Khalilzad said the deal was not irreversible and that “there is no obligation for the United States to withdraw its troops if the Afghan parties fail to reach an agreement or if the Taliban show bad faith during the negotiations.” A number of former senior Trump officials have tried to distance themselves from the Taliban peace deal signed in February 2020, with chaos erupting after militants took control of Afghanistan this week. The agreement signed in Doha, Qatar, which follows more than a year of negotiations and ostensibly excluded the US-backed Afghan government, is not a final peace agreement, is full of ambiguities and could still be dissolved. Supporting an inclusive and sustainable peace process is one of the top priorities of the USIP-Afghanistan program. THE USIP is directly engaged in top-down, bottom-up and international efforts to help Afghans reach a political solution that ends more than four decades of violent conflict. USIP has supported Afghan leaders with comparative experience and negotiating tools that can help identify and overcome key sticking points in the talks.
At the same time, USIP has worked to empower local peacemakers and activists across Afghanistan to participate in direct action for peace. The PICU also provides research and recommendations to U.S. officials and other key international stakeholders on how to address key drivers of conflict and reduce threats to national security. Washington remains the most powerful player in the Afghan conflict, but it is not involved in these talks among Afghans as they seek to resolve 40 years of civil war dating back to the 1979 Soviet invasion. From the U.S. perspective, success looks like an Afghan peace that will end the U.S. Combat the role and ensure that al-Qaeda, ISIS and other terrorist groups cannot operate freely. The deal also depends on more difficult negotiations between the Taliban and the Afghan government over the country`s future.
Officials hope that these talks will lead to a power-sharing agreement and a permanent ceasefire, but both ideas have been anathema to the Taliban in the past. This nascent peace process could be a turning point in more than 40 years of conflict, which began with a communist coup in 1978. Various Afghan factions will try to negotiate a political agreement that balances power between different ethnic groups, religious visions, and economic and social perspectives that cover a gap between urban and rural areas. At present, Afghan peace negotiations (AFN) between the Afghan government and the Taliban do not involve a third-party presence beyond moderation and support. Parties to the conflict and members of the international community could consider the benefits of a third neutral mediator to break the deadlocks that have followed and delayed negotiations so far. Although the presence of a mediator does not guarantee success, there are very few examples of a major peace agreement reached without any type of third-party support or mediation. The first concern of the United States will simply be to maintain the talks. A reduction in violence – as we saw after the US-Taliban framework agreement in February – is probably necessary. Another issue to watch will be how the parties approach the future of the security forces both during the process and in a final agreement. Issues such as the integration of security forces, the demobilization of combatants, and the question of how the integrated Afghan security forces will impose a long-term cessation of hostilities and fight terrorists will affect all the fundamental interests of the United States. U.S. officials will want to influence the functioning of Afghan forces both during the peace process and after an agreement with international partners.
However, the renegotiations would have been difficult. Biden would have had little influence. Like Trump, he wanted to withdraw US troops from Afghanistan. Withdrawing from the deal could have forced him to send back thousands more. In addition, preventing new conflicts means creating peace and human rights for all, as it strengthens Afghan society. A regulation must include women, because without women, civil society and the state are more fragile and exclusive. Regulation that does not protect women would render meaningless the sacrifices so many have made – and grant peace to the few while forgetting the many. Following the controversial release of the last group of Taliban prisoners, intra-Afghan talks officially began on September 12, 2020 in Doha, Qatar. With the recent agreement on the rules of procedure, the two sides are now discussing the agenda for the formal talks. .